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Sabbagh, Hisham; Haas, Ellen; Baumert, Uwe; Seidel, Corinna Lesley; Hötzel, Linus; Wichelhaus, Andrea (2024): Biomechanical Simulation of Orthodontic En-Bloc Retraction Comparing Compound Technique and Sliding Mechanics Using a HOSEA Robotic Device. Bioengineering, 11 (2): 153. ISSN 2306-5354

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En-bloc retraction is a common procedure in orthodontic therapy. The application of palatal root torque moments is required to control incisor inclination during retraction, yet studies comparing forces and moments with respect to different mechanics are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the forces and moments during orthodontic en-bloc retraction using a robotic biomechanical simulation system, comparing two distinct approaches: (I) compound technique [stainless steel (SS) combined with nickel-titanium (NiTi)] using industrially pretorqued retraction-torque-archwires (RTA) in combination with NiTi closed coil springs; (II) conventional sliding mechanics using SS archwires with manually applied anterior twist bends in combination with elastic chains. Two dimensions (0.017” × 0.025” and 0.018” × 0.025”) and ten archwires per group were investigated using 0.022” slot self-ligating brackets. Kruskal–Wallis tests with a significance level of α = 0.05 were conducted. The biomechanical simulation showed that en-bloc retraction was characterized by a series of tipping and uprighting movements, differing significantly regarding the examined mechanics. Collateral forces and moments occurred in all groups. Notably, RTA exhibited fewer extrusive forces. The most bodily movement was achieved with the compound technique and the 0.018” × 0.025” RTA. Sliding mechanics exhibited maximum palatal root torque moments of more than 20 Nmm, exceeding recommended values.

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