Logo Logo

Felsch, Marco; Meyer, Ole; Schlickenrieder, Anne; Engels, Paula; Schönewolf, Jule; Zöllner, Felicitas; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Hesenius, Marc; Hickel, Reinhard; Gruhn, Volker; Kühnisch, Jan (2023): Detection and localization of caries and hypomineralization on dental photographs with a vision transformer model. npj Digital Medicine, 6 (1). ISSN 2398-6352

[thumbnail of s41746-023-00944-2.pdf] Published Article

The publication is available under the license Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (8MB)


Caries and molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) are among the most prevalent diseases worldwide and need to be reliably diagnosed. The use of dental photographs and artificial intelligence (AI) methods may potentially contribute to realizing accurate and automated diagnostic visual examinations in the future. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop an AI-based algorithm that can detect, classify and localize caries and MIH. This study included an image set of 18,179 anonymous photographs. Pixelwise image labeling was achieved by trained and calibrated annotators using the Computer Vision Annotation Tool (CVAT). All annotations were made according to standard methods and were independently checked by an experienced dentist. The entire image set was divided into training (N = 16,679), validation (N = 500) and test sets (N = 1000). The AI-based algorithm was trained and finetuned over 250 epochs by using image augmentation and adapting a vision transformer network (SegFormer-B5). Statistics included the determination of the intersection over union (IoU), average precision (AP) and accuracy (ACC). The overall diagnostic performance in terms of IoU, AP and ACC were 0.959, 0.977 and 0.978 for the finetuned model, respectively. The corresponding data for the most relevant caries classes of non-cavitations (0.630, 0.813 and 0.990) and dentin cavities (0.692, 0.830, and 0.997) were found to be high. MIH-related demarcated opacity (0.672, 0.827, and 0.993) and atypical restoration (0.829, 0.902, and 0.999) showed similar results. Here, we report that the model achieves excellent precision for pixelwise detection and localization of caries and MIH. Nevertheless, the model needs to be further improved and externally validated.

View Item
View Item