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Lu, Wenzheng ORCID: 0000-0001-8119-5169; Menezes, Leonardo de S. ORCID: 0000-0002-8654-1953; Tittl, Andreas ORCID: 0000-0003-3191-7164; Ren, Haoran ORCID: 0000-0002-2885-875X; Maier, Stefan A. ORCID: 0000-0001-9704-7902 (2023): Active Huygens’ metasurface based on in-situ grown conductive polymer. Nanophotonics. ISSN 2192-8614

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Active metasurfaces provide unique advantages for on-demand light manipulation at a subwavelength scale for emerging visual applications of displays, holographic projectors, optical sensors, light detection and ranging (LiDAR). These applications put stringent requirements on switching speed, cycling duration, electro-optical controllability, modulation contrast, optical efficiency and operation voltages. However, previous demonstrations focus only on particular subsets of these key performance requirements for device implementation, while the other performance metrics have remained too low for any practical use. Here, we demonstrate an active Huygens’ metasurface based on conductive polyaniline (PANI), that can be in-situ grown and optimized on the metasurface. We have achieved simultaneously on the active metasurface switching speed of 60 frame per second (fps), switching duration of more than 2000 switching cycles without noticeable degradation, hysteresis-free controllability over intermediate states, modulation contrast of over 1400%, optical efficiency of 28% and operation voltage range within 1 V. Such PANI-powered active metasurface design can be readily incorporated into other metasurface concepts to deliver high-reliability electrical control over its optical response, paving the way for compact and robust electro-optic metadevices.

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