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Weiss, Fabian; Kaltofen, Till; Kanitz, Veronika; Schröder, Lennard; Kost, Bernd; König, Alexander; Delius, Maria; Mahner, Sven; Alba Alejandre, Irene (2023): Clear cell endometrial carcinoma with high microsatellite instability in a complicated pregnancy: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 17 (1). ISSN 1752-1947

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Endometrial carcinomas are the most common female genital malignancies. They are very rare in pregnancy and worldwide less than 60 cases associated with pregnancy are published. No clear cell carcinoma has been described in a pregnancy with a live birth.

Case presentation
We present the course of a 43-year-old Uyghur female patient with the diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma with a deficiency in the DNA mismatch repair system in the pregnancy. The malignancy with clear cell histology was confirmed by biopsy following the delivery via caesarean section due to preterm birth of a fetus with sonographically suspected tetralogy of Fallot. Earlier whole exome sequencing after amniocentesis had shown a heterozygous mutation in the MSH2 gene, which was unlikely to be related to the fetal cardiac defect. The uterine mass was initially deemed an isthmocervical fibroid by ultrasound and was confirmed as stage II endometrial carcinoma. The patient was consequently treated with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Six months after the adjuvant therapy, re-laparotomy was performed due to ileus symptoms and an ileum metastasis was found. The patient is currently undergoing immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy with pembrolizumab.

Rare endometrial carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of uterine masses in pregnant women with risk factors.

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