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Fischer, Moritz ORCID: 0000-0003-3197-7933; Gollwitzer, Mario ORCID: 0000-0003-4310-4793 (2023): Whistleblowing Paradigms. Collabra: Psychology, 9 (1). ISSN 2474-7394

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Operationalizing whistleblowing in a valid paradigm is an important yet challenging endeavor. In the present article, we review four categories of whistleblowing paradigms—scenario studies, autobiographical recalls, immersive behavioral paradigms, and economic games—and discuss how they capture the definitory features of whistleblowing. Moreover, we evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each paradigm along selected psychometric criteria. Our review suggests that each of these paradigms comes with individual strength and weaknesses regarding the robustness against socially desirable responding, their efficiency, and whether or not they avoid using deception. We call for future research to conduct multi-method studies combining the four categories of whistleblowing paradigms within the same sample in order to test their convergence empirically.

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