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Honda, Tamisa Seeko Bandeira; Ku, John; Anders, Hans-Joachim (2023): Cell type-specific roles of NLRP3, inflammasome-dependent and -independent, in host defense, sterile necroinflammation, tissue repair, and fibrosis. Frontiers in Immunology, 14: 1214289. ISSN 1664-3224

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The NLRP3 inflammasome transforms a wide variety of infectious and non-infectious danger signals that activate pro-inflammatory caspases, which promote the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18, and pyroptosis, a pro-inflammatory form of cell necrosis. Most published evidence documents the presence and importance of the NLRP3 inflammasome in monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils during host defense and sterile forms of inflammation. In contrast, in numerous unbiased data sets, NLRP3 inflammasome-related transcripts are absent in non-immune cells. However, an increasing number of studies report the presence and functionality of the NLRP3 inflammasome in almost every cell type. Here, we take a closer look at the reported cell type-specific expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome components, review the reported inflammasome-dependent and -independent functions, and discuss possible explanations for this discrepancy.

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