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Biczok, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, J.; Karschnia, P.; Ruf, V. C.; Tonn, J. C.; Herms, J.; Schichor, C.; Dorostkar, M. M. (2023): Mutational signature of extracranial meningioma metastases and their respective primary tumors. Acta Neuropathologica Communications, 11 (1). ISSN 2051-5960

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Extracranial metastases of intracranial meningiomas are rare. Little is known about the mutational pattern of these tumors and their metastatic seeding. Here, we retrospectively explored the molecular alterations of these metastatic lesions and their respective intracranial tumor manifestations.

Histology and genome sequencing were performed in intracranial meningiomas and their extracranial metastatic lesions operated upon between 2002 and 2021. Next-generation DNA/RNA sequencing (NGS) and methylome analysis were performed to determine molecular alterations.

We analyzed the tumors of five patients with clinically suspected metastases of a meningioma using methylome analysis and next generation panel sequencing of the primary tumors as well as the metastatic lesions. Metastases were found in the spinal cord and one in the lung. In four of these patients, molecular analyses confirmed metastatic disease, while the fifth patient was found to harbor two molecularly distinct meningiomas. On pathological assessment, the primary lesions ranged from CNS WHO grades 1 to 3 (integrated molecular-morphologic meningioma classification scores 2 to 6). Of the four true metastatic cases, three out of the four metastasizing tumors harbored alterations in the BAP1 gene, comprising a stop-mutation combined with copy-number loss (WHO grade 1), copy number loss (WHO grade 3) and a frameshift mutation (WHO grade 2). Furthermore, the latter was confirmed to harbor a BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome. The fourth metastasizing tumor had copy-number losses in NF2 and PTEN. Only one of four showed CDKN2A homozygous deletion; none showed TERT promotor mutation.

Our results molecularly confirm true metastatic disease in four meningioma patients. BAP1 gene alterations were the most frequent. Larger cohorts, most likely from multicenter studies are necessary to evaluate the role of BAP-1 alterations to further understand the metastatic spread in meningiomas. for metastatic spread and might indicate patients at risk for metastatic spread. Further explorations within larger cohorts are necessary to validate these findings which might influence the clinical management in the future.

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