Logo Logo

Goni, Elisabetta; Tammer, Ina; Schütte, Kerstin; Thon, Cosima; Jechorek, Dörthe; Mahajan, Ujjwal Mukund; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Macke, Lukas; Aulinger, Benedikt; Selgrad, Michael; Link, Alexander; Malfertheiner, Peter; Schulz, Christian (2022): The influence of gastric atrophy on Helicobacter pylori antibiotics resistance in therapy-naïve patients. Frontiers in Microbiology, 13. ISSN 1664-302X

[thumbnail of fmicb-13-938676.pdf] Published Article

The publication is available under the license Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (587kB)


Background: Antibiotic susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to antibiotics may vary among different niches of the stomach. The progression of chronic H. pylori gastritis to atrophy changes intragastric physiology that may influence selection of resistant strains.

Aim: To study the antibiotic resistance of H. pylori taking the severity of atrophic gastritis in antrum and corpus into account.

Methods: Helicobacter pylori-positive patients (n = 110, m = 32, mean age 52.6 ± 13.9 years) without prior H. pylori eradication undergoing upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms were included in a prospective study. Patients were stratified into three groups depending on the grade of atrophy: no atrophy (OLGA Stage 0), mild atrophy (OLGA Stage I–II) and moderate/severe atrophy (OLGA Stage III–IV). Two biopsies each from the antrum and the corpus and one from the angulus were taken and assessed according to the updated Sydney system. H. pylori strains were isolated from antrum and corpus biopsies and tested for antibiotic susceptibility (AST) for amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and rifampicin by the agar dilution methods. A Chi-square test of independence with a 95% confidence interval was used to detect differences in the proportion of patients with susceptible and resistant H. pylori strains.

Results: Among 110 patients, primary clarithromycin resistance (R) was 30.0%, both in the antrum and corpus; metronidazole resistance accounted for 36.4 and 34.5% in the antrum and corpus; and levofloxacin was 19.1 and 22.7% in the antrum and corpus, respectively. Resistance rates to amoxicillin, tetracycline, and rifampicin were below 5%. Dual antibiotic resistance rate was 21.8%, and triple resistance rate was 9.1%. There was a significant difference in the resistance rate distribution in antrum (p < 0.0001) and corpus (p < 0.0001). With increasing severity of atrophy according to OLGA stages, there was a significant increase in clarithromycin-R and metronidazole-R.

Conclusion: In treatment-naïve patients, antibiotic resistance and heteroresistance were related to the severity of atrophy. The high clarithromycin resistance in atrophic gastritis suggests that H. pylori antibiotic susceptibility testing should always be performed in this condition before selecting the eradication regimen.

View Item
View Item