Logo Logo

Jörgens, Maximilian; Keppler, Alexander M; Degen, Nikolaus; Bachmeier, Andreas T; Bergstraesser, Marcel; Sass, Jan; Prall, Wolf Christian; Böcker, Wolfgang; Fürmetz, Julian (2022): Reliability of 3D planning and simulations of medial open wedge high tibial osteotomies. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, 30 (2). ISSN 1022-5536

[thumbnail of Paper Veröffentlichung.pdf] Published Article
Paper Veröffentlichung.pdf

The publication is available under the license Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB)


Purpose: In medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) hinge axis and osteotomy plane influence the resulting anatomy, but accurate angular quantifications using 3D-planning-simulations are lacking. The objectives of this study were developing a standardized and validated 3D-planning method of an HTO and to perform several simulated realignments to explain unintended anatomy changes. Methods: The cutting direction of the main osteotomy was defined parallel to the medial tibial slope and the hinge axis 1.5 cm distal to the lateral plateau. For interobserver testing, this 3D planning was performed on 13 digital models of human tibiae by two observers. In addition, four different hinge axis positions and five differently inclined osteotomy planes each were simulated. The osteotomy direction ranged from medial 0°–30° anteromedial, while the tilt of the osteotomy plane compared to the tibial plateau was −10° to +10°. All anatomic angular changes were calculated using 3D analysis. Results: Multiple HTO plannings by two medical investigators using standardized procedures showed only minimal differences. In the 3D-simulation, each 10° rotation of the hinge axis resulted in a 1.7° significant increase in slope. Tilting the osteotomy plane by 10° resulted in significant torsional changes of 2°, in addition to minor but significant changes in the medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA). Conclusion: Standardized 3D-planning of the HTO can be performed with high reliability using two-observer planning. 3D-simulations suggest that control of the osteotomy plane is highly relevant to avoid unintended changes in the resulting anatomy, but this can be a helpful tool to modify specific angles in different pathologies in the HTO.

View Item
View Item