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Lorger, Anna; Luft, Nikolaus; Mayer, Wolfgang J.; Priglinger, Siegfried G.; Dirisamer, Martin (2024): One-stage versus two-stage bilateral implantable collamer lens implantation: a comparison of efficacy and safety. Scientific Reports, 14 (1). ISSN 2045-2322

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Implantable collamer lens implantation (ICL) represents a safe and effective treatment for myopia and myopic astigmatism. To compare the outcomes of a bilateral one-stage same day approach to a two-stage approach, the databases of the University Eye Hospital Munich, Ludwig Maximilians-University and Smile Eyes Linz, Austria were screened for eyes that had undergone ICL implantation. Two-stage surgery was performed at an interval of 1 day (17 patients), 2 days (19 patients) and 1 week (2 patients). Variables analyzed were preoperative, 1-day and last follow-up uncorrected distance (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), manifest refraction, refractive spherical equivalent (SEQ), astigmatism, age, endothelial cell count (ECD), intraocular pressure (IOP) and ICL vaulting. In total, 178 eyes (100 eyes one-stage, 78 eyes two-stage) of 89 patients were included in this study. Mean follow-up was 1.1 ± 0.8 and 1.3 ± 0.5 years. Mean preoperative SEQ was − 7.9 ± 2.6 diopters (D) in the one-stage and − 8.0 ± 1.7 D in the two-stage group (p = 0.63) and improved to 0.00 ± 0.40 and − 0.20 ± 0.40 D at end of follow-up, showing slightly better stability in the one-stage group (p = 0.004). There was no difference in the efficacy (1.1 vs. 1.2, p = 0.06) and the safety index (1.2 vs. 1.2, p = 0.60) between the two groups. No eye (0%) in either group lost 2 lines or more of UDVA (p > 0.99). Refraction within ± 0.50 D and ± 1.00 D around target was achieved comparably often (89 vs. 86%, p = 0.65; 99 vs. 99%, p > 0.99). Endothelial cell loss was slightly higher in the two-stage group (1.3 vs. 4.3%). Vaulting at the final follow up was higher in the one-stage group (373.8 ± 205.4 µm vs. 260.3 ± 153.5 µm, p = 0.00007). There were no serious intraoperative complications in either group. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that both the one- and two-stage approaches are equally effective, predictable and safe. Regarding endothelial cell loss, vaulting and SEQ stability, the one-stage group showed slightly better outcomes, but these results are clinically questionable because they are so small. Larger studies are needed to quantitatively evaluate a potential benefit.

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