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Kühner, Lucca; Wendisch, Fedja J.; Antonov, Alexander A.; Bürger, Johannes; Hüttenhofer, Ludwig; de S. Menezes, Leonardo; Maier, Stefan A.; Gorkunov, Maxim V.; Kivshar, Yuri; Tittl, Andreas (2023): Unlocking the out-of-plane dimension for photonic bound states in the continuum to achieve maximum optical chirality. Light: Science & Applications, 12 (1). ISSN 2047-7538

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The realization of lossless metasurfaces with true chirality crucially requires the fabrication of three-dimensional structures, constraining experimental feasibility and hampering practical implementations. Even though the three-dimensional assembly of metallic nanostructures has been demonstrated previously, the resulting plasmonic resonances suffer from high intrinsic and radiative losses. The concept of photonic bound states in the continuum (BICs) is instrumental for tailoring radiative losses in diverse geometries, especially when implemented using lossless dielectrics, but applications have so far been limited to planar structures. Here, we introduce a novel nanofabrication approach to unlock the height of individual resonators within all-dielectric metasurfaces as an accessible parameter for the efficient control of resonance features and nanophotonic functionalities. In particular, we realize out-of-plane symmetry breaking in quasi-BIC metasurfaces and leverage this design degree of freedom to demonstrate an optical all-dielectric quasi-BIC metasurface with maximum intrinsic chirality that responds selectively to light of a particular circular polarization depending on the structural handedness. Our experimental results not only open a new paradigm for all-dielectric BICs and chiral nanophotonics, but also promise advances in the realization of efficient generation of optical angular momentum, holographic metasurfaces, and parity-time symmetry-broken optical systems.

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