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Wischmann, Johannes; Kremer, Pauline; Hinske, Ludwig; Tomasi, Roland; Becker-Pennrich, Andrea S.; Kellert, Lars (2023): The RAPID-score: Risk Assessment and PredIction of Delirium in acute stroke patients based on very early clinical parameters. Frontiers in Neurology, 14: 1306520. ISSN 1664-2295

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Background and objective: Post-stroke delirium (PSD) is a common complication in acute stroke patients, and guidelines recommend routine screening and various preventive and treatment measures. However, there is a substantial lack of standardized approaches in diagnostic and therapeutic management of PSD. Here, we aimed to develop a new pragmatic and easily assessable screening tool to predict PSD based on early parameters, which are already integral to acute stroke diagnostics.

Methods: We enrolled acute stroke patients admitted to our stroke unit or intensive care unit and developed the scoring system using retrospective single-center patient data. The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit was used for prospective score validation. Logistic regression models were employed to analyze the association of early clinical and paraclinical parameters with PSD development.

Results: N = 525 patients (median age: 76 years; 45.7% female) were enrolled, with 29.7% developing PSD during hospitalization. The resulting score comprises 6 items, including medical history, clinical examination findings, and non-contrast computed tomography results at admission. Scores range from −15 to +15 points, with higher values indicating a higher likelihood of PSD, ranging from 4% to 79%. The accuracy was 0.85, and the area under the curve was 0.89.

Conclusion: The new RAPID (Risk Assessment and PredIction of Delirium in acute stroke patients)-score shows high accuracy in predicting PSD among acute stroke patients and offers precise odds of PSD for each corresponding score value, utilizing routine early clinical and paraclinical parameters. It can identify high-risk populations for clinical study interventions and may be suitable to guide prophylactic PSD measures.

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