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Impertro, Alexander; Wienand, Julian F.; Häfele, Sophie; von Raven, Hendrik; Hubele, Scott; Klostermann, Till; Cabrera, Cesar R.; Bloch, Immanuel; Aidelsburger, Monika (2023): An unsupervised deep learning algorithm for single-site reconstruction in quantum gas microscopes. Communications Physics, 6 (1). ISSN 2399-3650

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In quantum gas microscopy experiments, reconstructing the site-resolved lattice occupation with high fidelity is essential for the accurate extraction of physical observables. For short interatomic separations and limited signal-to-noise ratio, this task becomes increasingly challenging. Common methods rapidly decline in performance as the lattice spacing is decreased below half the imaging resolution. Here, we present an algorithm based on deep convolutional neural networks to reconstruct the site-resolved lattice occupation with high fidelity. The algorithm can be directly trained in an unsupervised fashion with experimental fluorescence images and allows for a fast reconstruction of large images containing several thousand lattice sites. We benchmark its performance using a quantum gas microscope with cesium atoms that utilizes short-spaced optical lattices with lattice constant 383.5 nm and a typical Rayleigh resolution of 850 nm. We obtain promising reconstruction fidelities ≳ 96% across all fillings based on a statistical analysis. We anticipate this algorithm to enable novel experiments with shorter lattice spacing, boost the readout fidelity and speed of lower-resolution imaging systems, and furthermore find application in related experiments such as trapped ions.

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